THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

I. GROSS ANATOMY: Learn to recognize and identify the following structures on plastic models, torsos and
     preserved specimen available in the lab.
     A. Pituitary gland in sella turcica
     B. Pineal gland (hormone=melatonin)
     C. Thyroid gland
     D. Parathyroid glands (hormone=parathyroid hormone a.k.a. PTH)
     E. Pancreas
     F. Adrenal glands
     G. Ovaries and Testes
 
II. HISTOLOGY: Learn to recognize and identify the following structures in microscopic view, and give a  function or product where applicable. 

     A. Pituitary gland: (hypophysis) Pituitary Pituitary
         1.  Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis): cells appear dense, cytoplasm staining darkly
              a. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

              b. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
              c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
              d. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
              e. Growth Hormone (GH)
              f.  Prolactin (PRL)

              g. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

              h. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
         2.  Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis): cells are few, overall appearance is fibrous, lightly
              stained
              a. Oxytocin
              b. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    B. Thyroid gland: follicles containing thyroglobulin (a.k.a. colloid) Thyroid Thyroid
         1. Hormone produced by the follicles when it combines thyroglobulin + iodine atoms= T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine)
         2. Hormone produced by the parafollicular cells=Calcitonin (a.k.a. thyrocalcitonin)

    C. Pancreas: Pancreas
        1. Acini--darkly stained pyramid-shaped cells arranged 5-8 cells with tip of pyramid pointing
            toward central duct,  base of pyramid to outside; this is the exocrine portion of the
            pancreas producing digestive enzymes.
        2. Islets of Langerhans--isolated clusters of cells; cytoplasm doesn't stain well, nuclei stand out; this is the
            endocrine portion of the pancreas.  Hormones produced by the islets include:
            a. Insulin
            b. Glucagon

    D. Adrenal gland: Look at the slide first without the microscope by holding it up to the light or
        by placing the slide on a white sheet of paper.  Notice a difference in color shading between
        the outer rim and an inner strip of tissue. The outer rim is the adrenal cortex.  The inner strip is the
        adrenal medulla.  Place the slide on the scanning lens and re-examine for the cortex and medulla. Adrenal Adrenal
       1. Cortex
           a. Mineralocorticoids (example: aldosterone)
           b. Glucocorticoids (example: cortisol)
           c. Gonadocorticoids (example: sex hormones)
       2. Medulla
           a. Epinephrine
           b. Norepinephrine

 
    E. Ovary: Ovary Ovary Ovary Ovary
        1. Primordial follicles containing the primary oocytes at or near outer surface of the ovary
        2. Primary follicles containing primary oocytes surrounded by cuboidal granulosa cells
        3. Secondary follicles containing secondary oocyte and first sign of antrum

        4.  Graafian (or vesicular) follicle possessing a well-defined antrum and the secondary oocyte
        5. Ovum (secondary oocyte) surrounded by zona pellucida and corona radiata

        6. Hormones produced by the thecal and granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle include:
            a. Estrogen
            b. Progesterone
            c. Inhibin
            d. Relaxin

 

   F. Testes: Testes Testes
        1. Seminiferous tubules (cross-section)
        2. Germinal epithelium with spermatogonia at periphery of seminiferous tubules
        3. Interstitial cells
        4. Spermatids near or in lumen possessing a head, midpiece, and tail

        5. Hormones produced by the interstitial cells
            a. Testosterone
            b. Inhibin

FOR THE LAB PRACTICAL, BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE ANY OF THE ABOVE ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH THEM, EITHER IN GROSS PRESENTATION OR MICROSCOPIC PRESENTATION.  BE ABLE TO NAME A PRODUCT OF A PARTICULAR PART OF A GLAND OR A FUNCTION OF A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE IN THE GLAND.