LABORATORY INSTRUCTION: THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

I.  HISTOLOGY:  Use the microscope to observe the following prepared slides.

    A. Cardiac muscle:  notice striations, branched fibers, intercalated disks, central nuclei. Picture
         

    B. Artery/vein cross-section:  Walls of an artery typically contain elastic and/or smooth muscle to the extent that the wall appears thick, compact, and very rounded or oval in cross-section.  Walls of a vein are thinner, contain little smooth muscle, and tend to collapse during slide preparation into various folded shapes in cross-section.  Identify the lumen of each vessel, the tunica externa (adventitia), composed of connective tissue; the tunica media, composed of smooth muscle and elastin; and the tunica interna or intima (endothelium), composed of simple squamous epithelium Picture 1, Picture 2
        
 
II. GROSS ANATOMY OF THE HEART AND GREAT VESSELS:  Use all available plastic models, torsos, charts, and preserved specimen to find the structures named below.  Refer to the labeled diagrams and photographs in your text and lab atlas.  The keys which go to the numbered models are not helpful as they contain more information than is required. Heart Diagrams: model 1, model 2, model 3, model 4, model 5, model 6, model 7,model 8, model 9 and model 10

 F. Coronary circulation:
      1. Arterial circulation:

            a. left coronary artery
                   (1) anterior interventricular (anterior descending) artery
                   (2) circumflex artery
            b. right coronary artery
                  
(1) marginal artery
                  
(2) posterior interventricular artery

      2.  Venous circulation

            a.  coronary sinus, drains myocardium into right atrium

            b.  great cardiac vein (parallel to the anterior interventricular artery)

            c.  small cardiac vein (parallel to the marginal artery)

            d.  middle cardiac vein (parallel to the posterior interventricular artery)


III. GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS: Use the available models to find examples of the following blood vessels.  Use the labeled sketches and photographs of the text or lab atlas to guide your study. Blood Vessel Models: model 1, model 2, model 3, model 4, model 5, model 6, model 7, model 8, model 9, model 10, model 11 and model 12

          A. Great vessels
                1. superior vena cava
                2. inferior vena cava
                3. pulmonary veins
                4. pulmonary trunk
                5. systemic aorta

FOR THE LAB PRACTICAL, BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE AND NAME THE VESSELS ABOVE ON APPROPRIATE CHARTS, MODELS, AND PRESERVED CATS.
 


 IV. CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
       
 A. Blood Pressure:  The typical device used clinically for measurement of blood pressure is the sphygmomanometer which consists of an inflatable cuff attached to a pressure measuring device (gauge).  The artery most typically selected for use in measuring blood pressure is the brachial artery.  On occasion, the femoral artery may be preferred.  Diagram 1, Diagram 2

      B.  Pulse Rate and Pulse Points:  Pulse rate can easily be measured by lightly pressing the radial artery across the styloid process of the radius and counting the pulsations while watching a second hand.  If you count for 15 seconds, multiply by four to get pulse/min.  If you count for 30 seconds, multiply by two.  Another place pulsations can be counted easily is at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, inferior and medial to the angle of the mandible.  Care should be taken not to press too hard in this location since pressure receptors are located within the artery wall at this point, and blood pressure will change in response to the external pressure. Diagram   C. Heart Sounds:  Use the stethoscope to listen to heart sounds.  Try several positions on the anterior chest wall.  Choose a location which gives you the clearest sound (usually nearest the apex).  Listen to the heart sounds of several classmates and try to compare the "lubb-dupp" patterns. Diagram

  D. Electrocardiogram: (also known as an ECG or EKG:  Although we will not perform an actual ECG, use strips obtained previously to identify the waves typical of an ECG.  Also observe abnormal ECG strips to identify which waves are absent.  Diagram

 

V.  DISSECTION: 

  1. Apex and base
  2. Epicardium (also known as the visceral serous pericardium)
  3. Endocardium
  4. Right and left auricle
  5. Right and left atria
  6. Right and left ventricle
  7. Tricuspid and bicuspid
  8. Chordae tendineae
  9. Trabeculae carnae and papillary muscle
  10. Aortic semilunar (and sometimes the pulmonary semilunar is visible)
  11. Interventricular septum
  12. Pulmonary trunk
  13. Aorta
  1. Aortic arch
  2. Descending thoracic aorta
  3. Brachiocephalic artery
  4. Right and left brachiocephalic vein
  5. Superior and inferior vena cava
  6. Right and left common carotid artery
  7. Right and left jugular vein
  8. Right and left subclavian artery and vein
  9. Right and left axillary artery and vein
  10. Right and left brachial artery and vein
  11. Azygos vein
  12. Intercostal artery and vein
  13. Descending abdominal aorta
  14. Celiac trunk
  15. Splenic artery
  16. Gastric artery
  17. Hepatic artery
  18. Superior mesenteric artery
  19. Right and left renal artery and vein
  20. Right and left gonadal artery and vein
  21. Inferior mesenteric artery
  22. Right and left lumbar artery and vein
  23. Right and left common iliac vein
  24. Right and left external iliac vein
  25. Right and left internal iliac vein
  26. Right and left external iliac artery
  27. Internal iliac artery
  28. Right and left femoral artery and vein
  29. Right and left great saphenous artery and vein
  30. Right and left popliteal artery and vein

VI.  WEBSITES:  Click on the following link for websites that will be useful:  Cardiovascular System