Students should be able to...
visually identify each class of tissue and examples within each
indicate the location (in the human body and/or organ) and
function of each example.
identify parts associated with specific examples of particular
identify the various tissues and structures associated with the
- Tissue - groups of cells with similar
structure and function
- Four principle human tissue types:
- epithelium (covering)
- connective (support)
- muscle (movement)
- nervous (control)
NOTE: LINK TO HISTOLOGY (SLIDE) PICTURES -
- Epithelia are classified according to their shape and
- Shape: squamal cuboidal, columnar
- Arrangement: simple (pseudostratified) or stratified
- Types of epithelium....
squamal - single layer of flattened cells;
located in air sacs of lungs, capillaries, and kidney glomeruli; functions in the passage of material
(filtration and diffusion)
cuboidal - single layer of cube-shaped
cells; located in kidney tubules and ovary surface; functions in secretion and absorption.
columnar - single layer of column-shaped
cells non-ciliated line the digestive tract and
gall bladder, ciliated line small bronchi of lungs and line uterine tubes;
function in absorption and secretion (of mucus [by
goblet cells] and enzymes).
Pseudostratified (columnar) - single layer of cells of differing height;
non- ciliated lines male urethra, ciliated lines
the trachea and most of the upper respiratory tract; functions in the secretion of mucus (by goblet cells).
- many layers of flattened cells;
non-keratinized lines esophagus, mouth, and
vagina, keratinized lines epidermis; functions in protection.
- Stratified cuboidal - many layers of
cube-shaped cells; found in ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands; functions in protection. (slides
are NOT available)
columnar - many layers of column-shaped
cells; located in large passageways of respiratory
tract and also found in the male urethra; functions in protection.
(slides are NOT available)
Transitional - many layers of cells with various shapes; lines the ureters
and bladder; functions in the distension of
III. Connective Tissue
- Connective tissue is classified based upon the presence of a cell and the
type of extra-cellular matrix (ground substance and fibers)
- Loose Connective
- gell-like matrix contains all three fiber
(collagen, elastin, and reticular); cell type =
fibroblast; widely distributed under epithelium; and forms lamina propria and wraps and cushions organs.
- matrix contains sparse amount of all three
fibers; adipocytes have a flattened nucleus as a result of fat droplets contained inside of cell;
used as fuel resource.
- reticular fibers w/ reticular cells
in loose ground substance; found in lymph nodes,
bone marrow, and spleen; fibers form internal skeleton that supports other
cell types. (slides are NOT available)
- Dense Connective
regular - fibroblasts with
collagen fibers; forms ligaments (connecting bone to bone), tendons (connecting bone to muscle), and aponeurosis
(connecting muscle to muscle).
irregular - irregularly arranged
collagen fibers with fibroblast; found in the dermis of the skin and fibrous joint capsules; withstands tension and
Hyaline - chondroblasts produce matrix with few collagen fibers,
chrondrocytes located within lacunae (spaces); found in ribs, nose, trachea, and
the larynx; supports and reinforces.
- chondroblasts produce matrix with
elastic fibers; supports external ear; maintains shape and structure.
Fibrocartilage - matrix similar to hyaline but less firm and also contains
more and thicker collagen fibers;
component of intervertebral discs; gives tensile strength. (slides are NOT
Bone (osseous) - hard, calcified
matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae; high vascularized; forms skeletal
system; provides support and protection as well as blood production. Obvious haversian (central) canal
with many lamellae and canaliculi present.
Blood - Erythrocytes (RBCs), Leukocytes (WBCs) and
cell fragments called Thrombocytes (Platelets); located in blood
vessels; transports respiratory gases, wastes,
IV. Muscular Tissue
- Highly vascularized muscular tissue is comprised of
elongated cells (called fibers) containing myofilaments (actin and myosin proteins). There three types of
- long, cylindrical, multinucleate
cells with striations (specific arrangement of actin and myosin); attached to skeleton and skin; under voluntary
control; provides movement.
Cardiac - branching, uninucleate, striated cells with junctions
(intercalated discs); located in the walls
of the heart; is under involuntary control; propels blood
Smooth - spindle-shaped, uninucleate cells without
striations; found in the walls of hollow organs; under involuntary control; propels substances.
V. Nervous Tissue
tissue (nervous system) conducts
electrical impulses and has integrative functions.
- Nervous tissue is composed of neurons which are
branching cells located in the brain, spinal cord,
- Neurons transmit electrochemical signals from
sensory receptors to effectors.
- Neuroglia are cells surrounding neurons and help to feed, support,
- Neurons are composed of dendrites, a cell
body, and an axon.
VI. Use of the Integumentary System
Skin is one component of the integumentary system we identified
in the cytology lab .
Human skin is composed of many tissue types.
Using slides provided, identify the various tissue types:
stratifed squamous epithelium, dense irregular connective, adipose, and
stratified cuboidal. In addition, please identify the two layers of the dermis
(epidermis and dermis), the hypodermis (subcutaneous),
and the following accessory structures associated with the skin: hair
follicle and shaft, sebaceous gland, stratum corneum, stratum basale (if
Using the skin models provided, identify the following: epidermis,
dermis, hypodermis, stratum corneum and basale, hair shaft and follcile,
sebaceous and eccrine (sudoriferous) gland, Pacinian corpuscle, Meissner's corpuscle,
dermal papillae, arrector pili, arteries and veins, and lymph
VII. Useful Websites: