Introduction to Medical Microbiology

Exam #3 Study Guide

 

Antimicrobial Drugs (see chapter questions 1,2,3,8,9,10,11,12,14,15)

1. Know the basic characteristics of antibiotics, the mechanisms of action (inhibit cell wall, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, etc.), and be able to match the mechanisms of action with examples of major drug groups (not 2nd, 3rd gen, etc.).

2. Know the mechanisms of action of antiviral drugs (inhibit viral entry, inhibit nucleic acid synthesis, etc.) and be able to give examples of drugs for each along with the viruses that are targeted.

3. Be able to identify and describe 3 mechanisms of drug resistance and examples of organisms that that use those mechanisms.

4. Be able to define Kirby-Bauer technique.

5. Know 3 negative effects of antimicrobial drugs, be able to define Therapeutic index (TI), Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and know the purpose of probiotics and prebiotics.

6. Know the answers to the questions in the Self-directed Study of anti-fungal and antiparasitic drugs.

 

 

Human-Microbe Interaction (see 4,7,10,11,15)

1. Be able to describe normal resident flora and 4 ways the host benefits from normal resident flora

2. Know the definitions of infection, disease, pathogens, pathogenicity, true pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, virulence, and infectious dose, and identify the 4 portals of entry by microorganisms

3. Be able to define adhesion and know 3 antiphagocytic factors used by microbes to survive host defenses (not examples).

4. Know 4 examples of exoenzymes and their functions.

5. Know the characteristics and difference between endotoxin and exotoxin, and be able to identify 3 examples of exotoxins and their target tissue (not examples).

6. Know the difference between localized, focal, and systemic infections (not examples) and be able to identify and define the 4 characteristics of systemic infection. Also know the definition of secondary infection.

7. Be able to define reservoir and know the 3 different types of reservoirs.

8. Be able to define carriers and differentiate between the 4 different types of carriers.

9. Be able to define zoonotic diseases and vector and know the difference between mechanical and biological vectors

10. Be able to differentiate between communicable     and non-communicable diseases, horizontal and vertical transmission, and describe details of the different methods of transmission (contact, food/water, or air).

11. Know the definition of nosocomial infections, 4 reservoirs of infectious agents, and 5   common examples of nosocomial infections.

12. Know the definitions of Universal Precautions (UPS), epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, morbidity rate, mortality rate, index case, endemic disease, sporadic disease epidemic disease (point-source, common-source, propagated), and pandemic (not examples)

             

 

Host Defenses I (see 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,14,15)

1. Be able to describe the three lines of defense and know the definition of antigen

2. Be able to describe specific characteristics for the 4 components of the first line of defense

3. Know the 3 major responsibilities of the immune system and be able to identify the function and examples of primary and secondary lymphoid organs.

4.  Be able to describe hematopoiesis, where it occurs, and know the different types of leukocytes:  Be able to identify and describe 3 types of granulocytes and 2 types of agranulocytes (including the 2 examples of monocytes in tissues and 3 examples of lymphocytes and their specific characteristics)

5. Know the details of the 5 processes involved in the second line of defense, including the 5 stages of inflammation, the definition of phagocytosis and the 6 steps of phagocytosis in order, the cause of fever and difference between endogenous and exogenous pyrogens, the function of Interferon, and 3 protective outcomes of complement activation including descriptions of each.

 

 

Host Defenses II/Specific Immunity/Diagnosing infections (see1,2,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,13,14,15 from ch. 15 and 5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,15 from ch. 17)

1. Know 4 important aspects of the third line of defense and be able to define Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and clonal selection.

2. Know the details involved in presentation of antigens.

3. Know the mechanisms of the 2 types of specific immunity in the third line of defense, including the specific cell types involved in each.

4. For antibody-mediated immunity, be able to differentiate between the 3 types of B cells, 2 regions of antibodies, and 5 classes of antibodies with descriptions. Also know 6 ways antibodies inactivate antigen.

5. For cell-mediated immunity, know the 4 different types of T cells and details of each.

6. Be able to define the 4 types of immunity and the 4 combined examples of immunity, including examples of each type.

7. Know the definition of immunization and herd immunity.

8. Know the difference between attenuated and inactivated vaccines and characteristics of each. Also be able to describe subunit vaccines and identify the 3 types.

9. Be able to identify 3 types of phenotypic methods and 3 types of genotypic methods used to diagnosis infectious diseases (not examples)

10. Be able to define serology and titer and to identify and describe the 6 examples of immunologic tests (not examples).

 

 

Immunological Disorders (see2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15)

1. Know the 3 types of Immunological Disorders and the definition of allergens..

2. For Type I hypersensitivities, know the general mechanism involved, the chemicals released, the definition and 4 examples of Atopy (including details), the details and causes of anaphylaxis, and 2 possible treatments for Type I hypersensitivities.

3. For Type II and Type III hypersensitivities, know the general mechanisms involved and the 2 examples given for each (including details). 

4. Know the blood typing rules for ABO transfusion reactions.

5. For Type IV hypersensitivities, know the general mechanism and cell types involved and descriptions of the 2 examples given.

6. Know the 4 types of transplants and their definitions, which types typically involve transplantation rejection, and 2 main ways to avoid rejection.  Also know the definition of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD).

7. Know the definition of autoimmune diseases, 3 possible origins of autoimmune disease, 4 examples of organ-specific and 2 examples of systemic reactions (including organs or cells affected), and 2 methods of treatment for autoimmune diseases.

8. Define immunodeficiency disorders and know the difference between primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including examples.