Introduction to Medical Microbiology

Exam #2 Study Guide



Microbial Growth (see chapter questions 2,3,7,8,10,12,14,15)

1. Be able to define and identify examples of macronutrients, micronutrients, and growth factors.

2. Be able to describe bacterial classifications based on carbon source, energy source, carbon and energy sources, temperature (also define thermoduric), gas requirements (not examples), pH requirements, and osmotic pressure.

3. Be able to define symbiotic and nonsymbiotic associations and the different types of relationships within each.

4. Know the process of binary fission and the definition of generation time.

5. Be able to calculate original population size, final population size, and generation number according to the example given in class.

6. Know what the bacterial growth curve shows, the 5 phases of the growth curve and the basic properties of each phase.



Microbial Metabolism (see 4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13)

1. Know the difference between anabolism and catabolism.

2. Know the basic characteristics of enzymes and how certain factors affect enzyme activity (temperature, pH, salt).

3. Be able to describe denaturation and the 2 types of enzyme inhibitors.

4. Know the difference between endergonic and exergonic reactions and the basics of redox reactions (oxidation versus reduction, hydrogenation versus dehydrogenation)       

5. Know the basic functions of electron carriers and be able to identify the three types of electron carriers and their reduced forms.

6. Know the basic properties of ATP and the 2 equations associated with its activity.

7. Know the order and descriptions of the 4 steps of aerobic respiration (Glycolysis, Transition step, Kreb's cycle, Electron Transport Chain). Know the molecules that enter and exit each step and the final amount of ATP produced (not the amounts from each step).

8. Know the details of the Electron Transport Chain.

9. Know the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

10. Be able to define fermentation and describe the 2 different types of fermentation.

11. Be able to define metabolites, gluconeogenesis, amination, deamination, and beta-oxidation.

12. Be able to describe photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments and identify which type of pigments are associated with different organisms.

13. Know the basic characteristics of the light-dependent and light-independent reactions.



Microbial Genetics (see 3,4,5,6,11,12,14,15)

1. Know where genetic material is located and the difference between genotype and phenotype.

2. Be able to describe the general structure of DNA and its characteristics, including base pairing rules.

3. Know the basics of DNA replication, transcription, and translation, and what is being created by each process.  Also know how RNA is different from DNA and the functions of each enzyme discussed.

4. Know the difference between spontaneous and induced mutations and know 2 examples of induced mutations.

5. Be able to define frameshift mutations and the 3 types of point mutations.

6. Know the purpose of the Ames test.

7. Be able to define DNA recombination and know the characteristics of transduction, transformation, conjugation, and transposons.



Genetic Engineering (see 3, 8,12,13,15)

1. Be able to describe 2 general properties of DNA, 3 types of enzymes used in genetic engineering, and gel electrophoresis

2. Know the purpose and process of DNA sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, PCR, and DNA cloning.

3. Know the 3 applications of DNA cloning



Viruses (see 1,2,3,4,5,9,11,12,13,14,15)

1. Know the overall characteristics and components of a virus and the definition of virion.

2. Know the characteristics of the capsid and be able to distinguish between the 3 common shapes.

3. Know the characteristics of the envelope, including the definition of spikes and 3 functions of the capsid/envelope.

4. Know the makeup and possible arrangements of viral  nucleic acid.

5. Know the steps of bacteriophage and animal virus replication, be able to describe what happens during each step, and know differences between the two types.

6. Know the basic nomenclature rules for viruses and be able to match the virus family with the examples of virus members listed.

7. Be able to define acute versus persistent infection and identify 3 types of persistent infections including their descriptions. 

8. Be able to define cytopathic effects, inclusion bodies, and oncoviruses.

9. Know the definitions of phenotypic mixing and genetic reassortment.

10. Know the characteristics and components of prions and define viroids.



Controlling Microorganisms (see 1,2,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,14,15)

1. Be able to define decontamination, sterilization, disinfection, and sanitization.

2. Know the difference between bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal.

3. Know the 6 factors affecting microbial death rate and examples of the 3 types of microorganisms in the target population

4. Be able to define thermal death time and thermal death point.

5. Know the characteristics of each method of physical control and if one type is preferred over another for certain items.  Also identify examples of their usage if listed.

6. Know the types of organisms targeted at each activity level and the basics of how each germicidal chemical works, including specific uses or examples if listed. Also know the activity level of each chemical.