THE URINARY SYSTEM

I. HISTOLOGY:
    A. Kidney:  Identify and learn to recognize:  Picture 1, Picture 2, Picture 3, and Picture 4
         1. renal corpuscle

         2. glomerulus with simple squamous epithelium
         3. Bowman's (nephron) capsule with simple squamous lining the walls
         4. renal tubules (cross section and longitudinal section) most consisting of simple cuboidal
             epithelium lining the walls
         5. collecting ducts


    B. Urinary bladder:   Picture 1, Picture 2

        This is an example of transitional epithelium.  The trigone is an area
        of the urinary bladder mucosa which does not have the typical folds known as rugae. It is an
        area defined by the two ureteral entrances to the bladder and the urethral exit from the
        bladder. The triangle between these openings is known as the trigone. Due to its proximity to
        the urethral flora, it is the most susceptible part of the bladder to infection. It is not visible on the slide.
     
FOR THE LAB PRACTICAL, BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF A NEPHRON (LISTED ABOVE), AND RECOGNIZE THE COMPONENT EPITHELIAL TYPES.  BE ABLE TO GIVE A FUNCTION OF THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES AND TISSUES.  BE ABLE TO TELL WHICH PART OF A NEPHRON IS INVOLVED IN FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, AND SECRETION.

 

II. GROSS ANATOMY Urinary Models
     A. Reproductive models

            1. male (pelvic plaque, latex model of pelvic floor, torso genital sections)

                a. urinary bladder, trigone, ureteral orifices

                b. prostate gland, prostatic urethra

                c. membranous urethra

                d. spongy (penile) urethra

                e. urethral orifice

                f. rectum, anal canal, anus

                g. urogenital diaphragm

                h. coccygeous group, levator ani, anal sphincter
          2. female (pelvic plaque, latex model of pelvic floor, torso genital sections)

                a. urinary bladder, trigone, ureteral orifices

                b. urethra

                c. urethral orifice

                d. urogenital diaphragm

                e. uterus, vagina, vaginal orifice

                f. rectum, anal canal, anus
      B. torso, kidney, and various other urinary system models:

            1. kidney

            2.  renal cortex

            3.  renal medulla

            4.  renal pyramid

            5.  renal columns

            6.  renal papillae

            7.  minor calyx

            8.  major calyx

            9.  renal pelvis

            10. renal hilus

            11. renal capsule
            12. ureters
            13. urinary bladder with trigone

            14. urethra

      C. kidney with renal corpuscle and nephron model:

            1.  all the parts from letter B above except #13 and 14

            2.  all arteries and veins:  renal, segmental, lobar, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular

            3.  renal corpuscle

            4.  glomerulus

            5.  Bowman's capsule

            6.  proximal convoluted tubule

            7.  loop of Henle

            8.  distal convoluted tubule

            9.  collecting duct

            10. afferent arteriole

            11. efferent arteriole

            12. juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells)

            13. macula densa

            14. podocytes
      D. cat dissection:  Urogenital Dissection

            1. kidney (right and left)

            2.  renal capsule

            3.  renal cortex

            4.  renal medulla

            5.  renal pelvis

            6. ureter (right and left)

            7. urinary bladder

            8. urethra

            9.  renal artery

            10 renal vein

       E. preserved kidney:  Kidney Dissection

            1. renal capsule

            2. renal cortex

            3. renal medulla with pyramids, papillae, columns

            4. blood vessels:  renal art/vn, interlobar art/vn, arcuate art/vn, and interlobular art/vn are usually visible

            5. renal pelvis (sinus) with major and minor calyces

            6. ureter

 III. PHYSIOLOGY: Complete Urinalysis

Typically, a complete urinalysis involves: an examination of the physical characteristics of urine, a chemical analysis, and a microscopic examination of urine sediment.  A separate urinalysis handout outline the instructions for these various studies will be provided or made available via the internet.  Please remember to bring it with you. 

FOR THE PRACTICAL, BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE ANY OF THE EQUIPMENT USED, NAME IT, AND DESCRIBE ITS FUNCTION.  BE ABLE TO NAME A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF A HIGH READING FOR ANY OF THE MATERIALS EVALUATED.  BE ABLE TO NAME A COMMON ITEM FOUND IN THE URINE BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION.  BE ABLE TO RELATE A SPECIFIC GRAVITY VALUE TO THE CONCENTRATED/DILUTE STATUS OF URINE.