THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

 

I.  HISTOLOGY:  Review the slides of ovary and testes which you studied first with the endocrine system.

    A. Ovary-- Picture 1, Picture 2, Picture 3 and Picture 4
        1. Primordial follicles at or near outer surface of the ovary
        2. Primary follicles containing primary oocytes surrounded by cuboidal granulosa cells
        3. Secondary follicles containing secondary oocyte with first sign of antrum

        4.  Graafian (or vesicular) follicle containing the secondary oocyte and possessing a well-defined antrum
        4. "Ovum" (secondary oocyte) surrounded by zona pellucida and corona radiata 

   B. Testes-- Picture 1 and Picture 2
        1. seminiferous tubules (cross-section)
        2. germinal epithelium with spermatogonia at periphery of seminiferous tubules
        3. interstitial cells
        4. spermatids near or in lumen

II. REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY: Use the labeled diagrams and photographs in the text and lab atlas in  order to identify the following structures on models and specimen available in the lab.  Reproductive Models

    A. Review the latex models of the muscles of the pelvic floor.  These were seen during the urinary system lab as you looked for the urethral orifice and sphincters.  This time, look for the crura and three columns of erectile tissue in the  penis on the male model;  look for the labia majora and minora, vestibule, vaginal orifice, and clitoris on the female  model.

    B. On the female sagittal and frontal sections (torso parts and plaques) identify:

         1. ovaries with ovarian ligament
         2. uterine tubes with fimbriae, infundibulum, and ampulla
         3. uterus (fundus, body, and cervix)
              a. uterine cavity
              b. endometrium
              c. myometrium
              d. perimetrium
              e. cervical os (internal and external)
         4. vagina (walls, canal, fornix, orifice)
         5. vestibular glands

         6. external genitalia
             a. labia majora

             b. labia minora
             c. vestibule
             d. clitoris
             e. mons pubis
          7. bladder, rugae, trigone, ureters

          8. urethra
          9. rectum, anal canal, anus
         10. pubic symphysis

         11. urogenital diaphragm

         12. coccygeous group, levator ani, external and internal anal sphincter

         13. ovum with corona radiata and zona pellucida

       
    C. On the ovary model identify:

          1.  ovary with ovarian ligament

          2.  primordial follicle

          3.  primary follicle with primary oocyte

          4.  secondary follicle with secondary oocyte

          5.  antrum

          6.  vesicular (Graafian) follicle demonstrating ovulation

          7.  corpus luteum (produces progesterone)

          8.  corpus albicans

 

    D. On the male sagittal sections (torso parts and plaques) identify:
          1. urinary bladder, rugae, trigone, ureters
          2. urethra (prostatic, membranous, penile=cavernous)
          3. penis
              a. corpora cavernosa
              b. corpus spongiosum
              c. glans penis
              d. prepuce
          4. scrotum
          5. testes
          6. rete testes
          7. epididymis
          8. vas (ductus) deferens
          9. seminal vesicles

        10. prostate gland,

        11. ejaculatory duct
        12. bulbourethral glands

        13. urogenital diagphargm
        14. rectum, anal canal, anus
        15. pubic symphysis

        16. coccygeous group, levator ani, external and internal anal sphincters

        17. mons pubis


 
III. EMBRYOLOGY ANATOMY Use the labeled diagrams and photographs in the text and lab atlas in  order to identify the following structures on models and specimen available in the lab.  Embryology Models
      A. On the fertilization/cleavage models identify:
           1. first panel** (not available in Cartersville but visible on other models)
               a. primary oocyte in primordial follicle
               b. secondary oocyte in secondary follicle
               c. vesicular (Graafian) follicle
           2. second panel
               a. sperm (acrosome, head, body, tail)
               b. secondary oocyte exhibiting fertilization
               c. completion of meiosis II and formation of male and female pronuclei

               d. polar body/bodies
               e. zygote demonstrating first mitotic division
           3. third panel: cleavage divisions
               a. two-cell stage
               b. morula (16-32-64 cell stage)
               c. blastocyst
                   (1) trophoblast
                   (2) inner cell mass (embryoblast)
                   (3) blastocoel

               d. gastrula (formation of endoderm and ectoderm visible only on purple plaque)      


     B. On the implantation model and purple plaque, identify:

           1. Female reproductive organs as above:
               a. ovaries
               b. uterine tubes with fimbria, infundibulum, and ampulla
               c. uterus (fundus, body, and cervix)
                     (1) cavity
                     (2) endometrium
                     (3) myometrium
                     (4) perimetrium
                     (5) cervical os

                     (6) cervical plug
               d. vagina

           2. trophoblast

           3. chorionic villi

           4. chorion

           5. yolk sac

           6. amnion

           7. bilaminar germ disk

           8. placenta (which produces hCG)

           9. umbilical cord

          10. umbilical artery and vein

          11. conceptus

          12. limb buds
          13. lens placode

 

    C. On the embryo development model, identify:
          1. neural groove
          2. somites
          3. heart and liver
          4. optic cup and lens placode
          5. limb buds

 

    D.  On the pregnant female model and torso, identify:

           1. uterus

           2. fetus

           3. placenta

           4. umbilical cord

           5. cervix

           6. vagina

           7. urinary bladder

           8. urethra

           9. breast

           10. areola

           11. nipple

           12. mammary gland

 

IV. CAT DISSECTION:  Use both male, female, and pregnant female cat dissections to identify:  Cat Dissection

      A. Male cat (if available)

            1. scrotum

            2. teste

            3. epididymis

            4. vas deferens

            5. urethra at base of urinary bladder

            6. glans penis

            7. prepuce

       B. Non-pregnant female cat (if available)

            1. ovary

            2. uterine tubes

            3. uterine horns

            4. vagina

       C. Pregnant female cat (if available)

            1. Same as non-pregnant female plus

            2. placenta

            3. umbilical cord

            4. chorion

            5. amnion

            6. conceptus