Respiratory System

I. Overview

Respiration include four processes:

  1. Pulmonary ventilation (air in/out, gas exchanged in lungs)
  2. External respiration (gas exchanged between blood and alveoli in lungs)
  3. Transport of respiratory gases (transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
  4. Internal respiration (gas exchange between blood and tissues)

II. Functional Anatomy of Respiratory System (Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli ) Diagram

Consists of two zones:

  1. Respiratory zone - actual site of gas exchange (bronchioles, a;veolar ducts, alveoli)
  2. Conducting zones - all other respiratory passageways

A. Nose

i. Functions:

ii. Nose structure Diagram

B. Pharynx Diagram

C. Larynx Diagram

D. Trachea Diagram

E. Bronchi and Subdivisions (bronchial tree)

F. Lungs and Plurae

i. Lungs

ii. Pluera

III. Mechanisms of Breathing (Pulmonary ventilation - inspiration and expiration)

A. Pressure relationships in the thoracic cavity

B. Pulmonary Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration Diagram

C. Respiratory Status

i. Respiratory Volumes: (measured by spirometer) Diagram

ii. Respiratory Capacities:

IV. Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood

A. Oxygen Diagram

B. Carbon Dioxide Diagram

C. Respiratory Center Diagram

Clinical Terms