The Immune System

I. Overview

II. Nonspecific Defenses 

1. Is an inherited trait
2. Are mechanical barriers covering the body surfaces
3. Protect from pathogens
4. Respond immediately

A. Surface Membrane Barriers (First line of defense)

  • Intact skin epidermis
  • Acid mantle of skin
  • Keratin
  • Intact mucous membranes
  • Mucus
  • Nasal hairs
  • Urine
  • Oil (sebum) secretions
  • Cilia
  • Gastric juice
  • Acid mantle of vagina
  • Lacrimal secretion

B. Nonspecific Cellular and Chemical Defenses

i. Phagocytes Diagram

ii. Natural Killer (NK) Cells

iv. Inflammatory Response (Second Line of Defense) Diagram

v. Antimicrobial Proteins

III. Specific Body Defenses

The immune response - (Third Line of Defense) provides adaptive protection targeted against specific antigens, amplifies inflammatory response, and has memory

Two immune responses Diagram

A. Cells of Immune System

Two cell types: Lymphoctes (B cells of humoral and T cells of cell mediated) and macrophages (antigen presenting cells)

B. Antigens (Ags)

i. Overiew

ii. Nonself Antigens

iii. Self Antigens

C. Humoral Immune Response Diagram

i. Activation, Proliferation, and Clonal Selection of B cells:

ii. Active and Passive Immunity Diagram

iii. Antibodies (Immunoglobulins, Igs) - soluble proteins secreted by activated B cells

D. Cell Mediated Immune Response

i. Activation and Proliferationof T cells

E. Cell Mediated and Humoral Overview: Diagram

III. Clinical Terms