Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

I. Body Fluids

A. Fluid Compartments

B. Composition of Body Fluids

C. Movement of Fluids Between Compartments

II. Water Balance

A. Overview

B. Regulation of Water Intake (Thirst Mechanism)

C. Regulation of Water Output

D. Disorders of Water Balance

III. Electrolyte Balance

A. Role of Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

B. Regulation of Sodium Balance (and sodium-water balance, BP, and Blood Volume)

i. Influence of Aldosterone

ii. Cardiovascular system

iii. Influence of ADH

iv. Influence of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

C. Regulation of Potassium Balance

D. Regulation of Calcium Balance

E. Other Major Electrolytes: Magnesium and Chloride

IV. Acid-Base Balance

V. Clinically Related Terms:

Hyper/hyper kalemia
Hypo/hyper natermia
Hypo/hyper calcemia
Hypo/hyper chloremia
Hypo/heper phosphatemia
Hypo/hyper magnesia