Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy = Structure (form) Physiology = Function "All specific functions are performed by specific structures!"

I. Structural Organization

atoms = unit of matter containing identicle particles
elements = units of compounds (molecules) composed of identicle atoms
molecules = various types and numbers of elements bonded together
organelles = functional units of cells composed of various molecules
cells = structural and functional units of an organism
tissues = group of cells with similar structure and function
organ = structure composed of two or more tissue types
organ system = collection of organs that work toward a common purpose

II. Organ Systems

Organ System Components Function
Integumentary Skin, hair, nails Protection
Skeletal Bones Support/Movement
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs Metabolism
Muscular Muscles Movement
Endocrine Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pineal, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovary, and Testis Metabolism
Cardiovascular Heart, blood, blood vessels Transport
Lymphatic Lymph vessels and lymph nodes Transport
Respiratory Nose, Trachea, Lungs Transport
Digestive Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Pancreas, Gall Bladder, Intestines, and Colon Transport/Metabolism
Urinary Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra Waste Processing and Elimination
Reproduction Gonads Propagation

III. Homeostasis (System Integration)

  1. Control Center - determines a set point or range at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the input it receives, and then determines the appropriate response.
  2. Receptor - "sensor" that monitors the environment and responds to changes (stimuli) by sending information (input) to the control center.
  3. Effector - provides the means by which the control center can cause a response (output) to the stimulus

IV. Anatomical References

A. Regional Terms....

cephalic=head
frontal=forehead
nasal=nose
orbital=eye
buccal=cheek
oral=mouth
cervical=neck
mental=chin
acromial=shoulder
sternal=breast bone
axillary=armpit
thoracic=chest
mammary=breast
brachial=arm
antecubital=front elbow
olecranial=back elbow
antebrachial=forearm
popliteal=posterior knee
sural=calf
carpal=wrist
palmar=palm
pollex=thumb
digital=fingers/toes
pubic=genital
patellar=anterior knee
crural=leg
tarsal=ankle
hallux=big toe
occipital=base of skull
vertebral=spinal
scapular=shoulder blade
dorsum=back
lumbar=loin
sacral=between hips
perineal=between anus and genitalia
femoral=thigh
calcaneal=heel
plantar=sole
Diagram of regional terms: Diagram

B. Directional terms....

anterior(ventral)=front
posterior(dorasl)=back
superior(cranial)=upper
inferior(caudal)=lower
medial=midline
lateral=awayfrom midline

intermediate=between medial and lateral
proximal=point of origin
distal=away from origin
superficial=external/surface
deep=internal/beneath surface

C. Body Planes....

Orientation of Plane Adjective
parallel to the long axis midsagittal and parasigittal
frontal(coronal)
perpendicular to the long axis transverse
diagonal to the long axis oblique

Diagram of body planes: Diagram

D. Body Cavities and Membranes....

i. Cavities...

ii. Membranes...

E. Body Regions.....

right hypochondriac epigastric left hypochondriac
right lumbar umbilical left lumbar
right illiac hypogastric left illiac

Diagram of body regions: Diagram