The Special Senses

Smell, Taste, Vision, Hearing, Equilibrium

I. Olfactory Sensations: Smell

A. Anatomy Diagram

B. Physiology Diagram

II. Gustatory Sensations: Taste

A. Anatomy Diagram

B. Physiology  Diagram

III. Visual Sensations

A. Anatomy Diagram

B. Image Formation Diagram

IV. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium

A. Anatomy Diagram Diagram Diagram Diagram

B. Physiology of Hearing Diagram

C. Physiology of Equilibrium

Two kinds of equilibrium...

  1. Static equilibrium - maintenance of the position of the body relative to the force of gravity; macules located in the utricles and saccules are involved in static equilibrium; macules are composed of a basement membrane, hair cells, otolithic membrane, and otoliths
  2. Dynamic equilibrium - maintenance of the body position (mainly in head) in response to sudden movements such as rotation, acceleration, and deceleration; crista located in ampulla of semicircular canals involved in dynamic equilibrium